STICKS are typically about 30cm (1ft.) long. Officially they must be small enough to fit in box 35cm x 10cm x 5cm to be considered eligible for tournament use. Each player needs a pair of sticks, one white and one black. The color of the stick is how players can distinguish one team from another under the surface. There are a variety of shapes and contours to sticks, but generally they have a slight curve with a shallow hook at the end. The front edge is angled to provide a degree of lift to the puck when shooting. Sticks can be either right-handed or left-handed as a result of this angled edge. While sticks can be held in either hand, or changed during a game, they can not be held in both hands at the same time (like an ice hockey stick). Sticks are often custom made by their owners from various types of hardwood. They are also commercially available and usually manufactured from plastic and rubber composites.

PUCKS consist of a metal weight encased in plastic. They weight 1.3kg (plus or minus .2 kg) with dimensions of approximately 80mm X 30mm. The edges are slightly rounded to minimize its roll across the pool when it is on edge. The plastic shell minimizes damage to the pool bottom.



MASKS are the type commonly found in any scuba diving store. However in the interest of safety, a mask must be a dual lens model that has a centre divider that is part of the frame. The glass itself should be tempered or safety glass. In addition, it is strongly recommended that a player’s mask have a low or small internal volume to help bring the lenses closer to the eyes and improve visibility.



FINS used in the sport of underwater hockey are typically the same as those used the sports of scuba diving and snorkeling. A full-foot fin is used in contrast to a rear-entry fins. This is because most rear entry fins have buckles or other fastening hardware which can cause injury to other players. The fin used must be made of a pliable material and have no sharp edges.




SNORKELS are necessary so that players can quickly and efficiently grasp a breath of air while still looking down into the pool at the game in progress. For safety the safety of the other players in the pool, the snorkel must be made of a pliable material, having no hard or rigid components. Though not required, experienced players often trim the length of their snorkels to minimize the volume of water which they must clear from the snorkel each time they surface.



MOUTHGUARDS are necessary to protect a player’s teeth from being hit by the puck. There are two types, an external mouthgard which is fitted to the snorkel, and an internal mouthgard which is molded to the shape of the player’s teeth. At least one of these two types must be worn by a player.



WATERPOLO CAPS with firm polyethylene or rubber ear protectors are required to be worn during play. In addition to protection, the caps serve to differentiate one team from another (in addition to the color of their sticks). In tournaments, the team with the white sticks wear the white caps, and the team with the black sticks will wear either a blue or black cap. Red caps are reserved for the water referees.



GLOVES are required to protect a player’s stick hand. This provides protection from being rubbed on the bottom of the pool, as well as protection from being hit by the puck or another player’s stick. Players will often make their own gloves by purchasing a thin cotton glove from any hardware store and covering the back of the hand and fingers with silicone. There are a number of different styles and methods of making a glove and it depends partially on the individuals style of play, and partially on how creative they can be when designing the glove. The general requirement is for protection of the hand, fingers and thumb. The palm does not require protection and is sometimes left open to allow a better grip on the stick. One design restriction is that a glove cannot have webbing between the fingers, or be of a design that would enhance the player’s swimming. During a tournament, the glove must be a significantly different color from the stick to enable a referee to distinguish between a puck pushed by a player’s stick and a puck pushed by a player’s fist (the latter is an infraction called "gloving the puck"). There are a few places on the Internet which sell customized gloves for underwater hockey.


SWIMSUITS are generally a tight fitting "Speedo styled variety" over a looser fitting pair of shorts and/or a top. This is because loose fitting clothes create a lot of drag and reduce the player’s speed. A swimsuit made from nylon or polyester (rather a spandex or elastane material such as Lycra) will last longer. Both the chlorine from the pools and frequent rubbing of the suite on the pool’s bottom will wear out a swimming suit faster than normal wear and tear.

GOALS are placed on the bottom of the pool. They are made from galvanized metal. The front edge of the goal is sloped upward to a trough where the puck often rests after a goal. The back of the goal has an 18cm back to stop the puck. The trough forms the base of an invisible "box" or "goal volume" (represented in green).




To count as goal the puck must enter the goal volume completely and make contact with the back or bottom of the goal. The box or goal volume measures 12cm deep x 18cm high x 3m wide.


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